How to Defang URLs, IP Addresses, & Email Addresses

Photo by Balaji Malliswamy on Unsplash

How to Defang URLs

  • Replace http(s) with hXXp(s): hXXps://malicious[.]com
  • Replace (s)ftp(s) with (s)fXp(s): fXp://malicious[.]com
  • Surround the period before the TLD with brackets (and optionally all periods): hXXps://nefarious.malicious[.]com

How to Defang IP Addresses

  • Surround the final period with brackets (and optionally all periods): 103.56.53[.]120

How to Defang Email Addresses

  • Replace @ with AT: nefariousATmalicious[.]com
  • Surround the period before the TLD with brackets (and optionally all periods): nefarious.malevolentATmalicious[.]com

Additional Resources

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Chad Warner

Cyber threat intelligence (CTI), OSINT, & cybersecurity enthusiast. Seeking a CTI job. Bookworm. Fan of Tolkien & LEGO.